Funerary Equipment

Ritual figures
Figures in wood of the king and of various deities and protective creatures were placed in royal tombs, sometimes enclosed in individual shrines. Such figures are known from KV 34, KV 35, KV 62, KV 23, KV 57 [12651, 12652, 12654, 12656]. Others we know only from pictures of them painted on tomb walls [13525]. Pairs of life-size figures of the king are known, not only from Tutankhamen's tomb but also from others, such as the tombs of Horemheb, Rameses I, and Rameses IX. Another ritual figure is a hollowed box or tray in the shape of the god Osiris filled with dirt and sown with seeds which sprouted when the dirt is moistened, called a germinating Osiris [12660]. Examples of this symbol of resurrection have been found in KV 62, KV 57, and KV 36.     12651 12652 12654 12656 13525 12660
A specialized group of ritual figures are magic bricks and the protective figures that were often attached to them. These came as a set of four oriented to the cardinal points and were placed in niches in the walls of the burial chamber surrounding the coffin [14130, 14139, 13834, 10498]. The four mud bricks were inscribed with protective texts from spell 151 of the Book of the Dead. The attached figures included a mummy, a jackal on a shrine, a djed-pillar, and a torch.     14130 14139 13834 10498
Wooden models are known from both royal and private tombs as early as the Middle Kingdom and bear a close conceptual relationship to similar subjects depicted on tomb chapel walls of the Old Kingdom. In New Kingdom royal tombs, the most prevalent type of model found was that of boats. These were intended for several different purposes, including sailing to and from Abydos on the ritual pilgrimage to the tomb of Osiris. Other boat models were connected with the voyages of the sun god Ra, and some were meant to serve the deceased in traversing the watery regions of the realm of Osiris.    
From the examples of material in the tomb of Tutankhamen, as well as from private New Kingdom burials, we see that furniture was an important component of burial goods. Stools and chairs were included [18352], as were boxes or chests for storage [18357, 18358]. Beds were also included because of the association of sleep and death or awakening and resurrection [12650, 18348].     18352 18357 18358 12650 18348

Published or last modified on: December 19, 2002
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